Abstract. The core objective of this research endeavour is to assess empi- rically to what degree perceptions of optimism subculture are associated with overall job satisfaction and its dimensions. Structured survey questionnaire was employed to test the study hypotheses. Hierarchical regression analyses reveals that perceived optimistic cultural values at group or team level fosters not only satisfaction to overall job but also its intrinsic and extrinsic components of sales persons employed by beverage companies in Pakistan while controlling the effects of important demographic variables such as gender age company and selling tenures. Practical implications of study findings and future research suggestions are presented too.
Keywords: Subculture Job satisfaction Sales person Beverage industry Pakistan
Job satisfaction undoubtedly is one of the most researched topics in industrial and organizational psychology (Spector 1997). It is defined as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the perception of one's job as fulfilling or allowing the fulfillment of one's important job values" (Locke 1976 p. 1342). From practitioners' perspective interest in job satisfaction is mainly due to its link with work-related behaviors and job performance (Judge et al. 2001; Riketta 2008; Snipes et al. 2005) employee retention (Robins and Coulter 2005) organizational commitment (Snipes et al. 2005) mental health and longevity (Locke 1976; Sempane Rieger and Roodt 2002). Researchers debated extensively about how organizational culture is linked to job satisfaction for the last many decades. As regards organization culture
It is defined as the pattern of shared values and beliefs that help individuals understand organizational functioning and thus provide them norms for behavior in the organization" (Deshpande and Webster 1989 p. 4). The cultural values represent internalized normative beliefs that can guide behavior. When a social unit's members share values they may form the basis for social expectations or norms" (O'Reilly Chatman and Caldwell 1991 p. 492). By developing a common way of thinking and understanding the enacted culture influences the interpretation of the organizational reality (Ott 1989) and hence formulates employee attitude and behavior (Cameron and Quinn 1999).
Martin (2002; 1992) proposed that multiple cultures may operate at individual (fragmented culture) group (differentiated culture) and organization levels (unitaristic culture). As regards work group/unit cultures it is likely that they apply different criteria in defining knowledge" (De Long and Fahey 2000 p. 117) which reflects the different values of each subculture about what is important useful and valuable to achieving the task at hand (De Long and Fahey 2000). Although the effect of different organizational culture types or cultural dimensions on job satisfaction has been extensively examined yet researchers are taking interest in determining whether or not cultural values at functional subgroups of sales force groups or teams are related to employee attitudes (Bridges 2003) particularly job satisfaction. In this connection mixed results of positive negative weak or strong and insignificant relations were found.
For instance Johnson (2004) had the opinion that few dimensions of the organizational culture may not be positively associated with the job satisfaction. For example in the study of Sempane et al. (2002) some dimensions of organizational culture had positive whereas others have negative relationship to job satisfaction (Sempane et al. 2002). Interestingly organizational culture was not significantly related to job satisfaction in empirical study conducted by Mehr et al. (2012). Lund (2003) found positive association of flexibility and internally oriented cultures and negative relationship of control and externally oriented cultures to job satisfaction. Differential impact of organization culture types on job satisfaction is evident whereby job satisfaction was found to be more likely when culture is supportive than when it is innovative and finally when it is bureaucratic (Silverthorne 2004).
The ranking of organization culture types from the highest to the lowest impact on job satisfaction is clan adhocracy market and hierarchy cultures (Lund 2003). Therefore the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction is still unclear and there is lack of empirical evidence to suggest how strong their relationship is. Despite mixed evidence numerous researchers have found positive relationship of organization culture with job satisfaction (Schneider and Snyder 1975; Field and Abelson 1982; Hellriegel and Slocum 1974; Kerego and Mthupha 1997; Moynihan and Pandey 2007; Vukonjanski and Nikolic 2013; Jacobs and Roodt 2008; Hoppock 1935; Navaie-Waliser 2004; Rad and Yarmohammadian 2006; Azanza Moriano and Molero 2013; Jiang and Klein 1999; Amos and Weathington 2008; Seashore and Taber 1975; Johnson 2004; Chang and Lee 2007; Yousaf 1998; Mckinnon 2003; Arnold 2006; Mansor and Tayib 2010; Sabri Ilyas and Amjad 2011).
Although numerous research studies were conducted to investigate the relationship of organizational culture on job satisfaction of the employees yet limited studies aimed at ascertaining empirically...