Climate-smart agriculture.

Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing the world today, and Pakistan is no exception. The country is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including sea level rise, floods, droughts, and extreme weather events. One of the main contributors to climate change is the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere.

To mitigate these emissions, it is necessary to adopt climate-smart practices and techniques. One way to do this is by adopting climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices in Pakistan.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), agriculture is responsible for approximately 14 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. In Pakistan, agriculture accounts for around 25pc of the country's total greenhouse gas emissions. The main sources of emissions from agriculture in Pakistan are enteric fermentation in livestock, manure management, and rice cultivation.

In Pakistan, agriculture accounts for around 25pc of the country's total greenhouse gas emissions

CSA is an approach to agriculture that aims to increase productivity and resilience while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is a holistic approach that considers the entire agricultural system, including crop and livestock management, water management, and soil health. In Pakistan, CSA practices can be implemented through a variety of techniques, including:Conservation agriculture: This approach to farming emphasises the use of minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and diverse crop rotations. By minimising soil disturbance and maintaining a permanent cover of crops or other vegetation, conservation agriculture can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve soil health. According to a study published in the Journal of Cleaner Production, conservation agriculture practices have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 30pc.Agroforestry: This is a practice that involves integrating trees into agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry can help sequester carbon, improve soil health, and provide other benefits such as shade for crops and habitat for wildlife. According to a study published in the journal Agroforestry Systems, agroforestry can sequester up to one tonne of carbon per hectare per year.Water management: Effective water management is crucial for sustainable agriculture. Farmers can reduce water usage and improve crop yields by using water-saving techniques such as drip irrigation. A...

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