Tivo Inc v Vivo International Corporation Pty Ltd [2012] FCA 252 (19 March 2012)

 
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Canberra: FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA

Tivo Inc v Vivo International Corporation Pty Ltd [2012] FCA 252

Citation:

Tivo Inc v Vivo International Corporation Pty Ltd [2012] FCA 252

Parties:

TIVO INC. and TIVO BRANDS, LLC. v VIVO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION PTY LTD (ACN 087 480 171) and FABIO GRASSIA; VIVO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION PTY LTD (ACN 087 480 171); TIVO BRANDS, LLC.

File number:

VID 25 of 2011

Judge:

DODDS-STREETON J

Date of judgment:

19 March 2012

Catchwords:

TRADE MARKS – Whether respondents’ mark deceptively similar to applicants’ mark – Whether honest concurrent use – Whether use of respondents’ mark likely to deceive or cause confusion, because applicants’ mark had acquired reputation in Australia or due to convergence of goods sold under each mark – Whether discretionary factors justify maintenance of registration of respondents’ mark – Whether infringement of applicants’ trade mark – Whether second respondent liable as joint tortfeasor – Whether applicants’ or respondents’ mark should be removed from the Register due to non-use in respect of particular goods or services

Legislation:

Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) ss 79, 140(2), 190(3)

Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth) ss 10, 14, 44(1), 44(2), 44(3)(a), 44(3)(b), 60, 72, 88(2)(a), 88(2)(c), 89, 92(3), 92(4), 101(3), 120, 122(1)(e)

Trade Marks Regulations 1995 (Cth) reg 8.2

Cases cited:

American Power Conversion v Tecom Resources Pty Ltd [2004] ATMO 58 cited

Anakin Pty Ltd v Chatswood BBQ King Pty Ltd [2008] FCA 1467; (2008) 250 ALR 620 cited

Anheuser-Busch Inc v Budejovicky Budvar, Narodni Podnik & Ors [2002] FCA 390; (2002) 56 IPR 182 cited

Aristoc Ltd v Rysta Ltd [1945] AC 68 discussed

Austin, Nichols and Co Inc v Lodestar Anstalt [2012] FCAFC 8 discussed

Australian Woollen Mills Ltd v FS Walton & Co Ltd [1937] HCA 51; (1937) 58 CLR 641 cited

Berlei Hestia Industries Ltd v Bali Co Inc [1973] HCA 43; (1973) 129 CLR 353 cited

CA Henschke & Co v Rosemount Estates Pty Ltd [1999] FCA 1561; (1999) 47 IPR 63 cited

Campomar Sociedad Limitada v Nike International Ltd [2000] HCA 12; (2000) 202 CLR 45 cited

Caterpillar Loader Hire (Holdings) Pty Ltd v Caterpillar Tractor Co [1983] FCA 145; (1983) 48 ALR 511 cited

CEPU v ACCC [2007] FCAFC 132; (2007) 162 FCR 466 cited

Chocolaterie Guylian NV v Registrar of Trade Marks [2009] FCA 891; (2009) 180 FCR 60 cited

Clinique Laboratories Inc v Luxury Skincare Brands Pty Ltd [2003] FCA 1517; (2003) 61 IPR 130 cited

Coca-Cola Company v All-Fect Distributors Ltd [1999] FCA 1721; (1999) 96 FCR 107 cited

Conagra Inc v McCain Foods (Aust) Pty Ltd [1992] FCA 159; (1992) 33 FCR 302 cited

Conde Nast Publications Pty Ltd v Taylor (1998) 41 IPR 505 cited

Cooper Engineering Co Pty Ltd v Sigmund Pumps Ltd [1952] HCA 15; (1952) 86 CLR 536 cited

Crazy Ron's Communications Pty Limited v Mobileworld Communications Pty Limited [2004] FCAFC 196; (2004) 209 ALR 1 cited

Dasreef Pty Ltd v Hawchar [2011] HCA 21; (2011) 277 ALR 611 cited

E&J Gallo Winery v Lion Nathan Australia Pty Ltd [2008] FCA 934; (2008) 77 IPR 69 discussed

E & J Gallo Winery v Lion Nathan [2009] FCAFC 27; (2009) 175 FCR 386 cited

Edwards v Liquid Engineering 2003 Pty Ltd [2008] FCA 970; (2008) 77 IPR 115 cited

EOS Australia Pty Ltd v Expo Tomei Pty Ltd (1998) 42 IPR 277 cited

Frigiking Trade Mark [1973] RPC 739 cited

Hansen Beverage Co v Bickfords (Australia) Pty Ltd [2008] FCAFC 46; (2008) 75 IPR 505 distinguished

Hansen Beverage Company v Bickfords (Australia) Pty Ltd [2008] FCAFC 181; (2008) 171 FCR 579 discussed

Haw Par Corporation Limited v The Thai Enterprises Limited (2004) 63 IPR 666 cited

Health World Ltd v Shin-Sun Australia Pty Ltd [2008] FCA 100; (2008) 75 IPR 478 cited

Hills Industries Limited v Bitek Pty Ltd [2011] FCA 94; (2011) 90 IPR 337 distinguished

Jaferjee v Scarlett [1937] HCA 36; (1937) 57 CLR 115 cited

Johnson & Johnson v Kalnin [1993] FCA 210; (1993) 26 IPR 435 cited

Jones v Dunkel [1959] HCA 8; (1959) 101 CLR 298 applied

Keller v LED Technologies Pty Ltd [2010] FCAFC 55; (2010) 185 FCR 449 discussed

Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc v Goulimis cited

Le Cordon Bleu BV v Cordon Bleu International Ltee [2000] FCA 1587; (2000) 50 IPR 1 cited

Magnavox (Aust) Pty Ltd’s Trade Mark (1964) 34 AOJP 2075 cited

McCormick & Co Inc v McCormick [2000] FCA 1335; (2000) 51 IPR 102 discussed

McHattan v Australian Specialised Vehicle Systems Pty Ltd (1996) 34 IPR 537 cited

Melhero Pty Ltd & Anor v Club X and Others (1997) 37 IPR 151 cited

Men’s Gallery Pty Ltd v Platinum 253 Pty Ltd [2008] ATMO 32; (2008) 78 IPR 71 cited

NEC Corporation v Punch Video (S) Pte Ltd [2005] FCA 1126; (2005) 67 IPR 17 cited

Nettlefold Advertising Pty Ltd v Nettlefold Signs Pty Ltd (1997) 38 IPR 495 cited

PB Foods v Malanda Dairy Foods Ltd [1999] FCA 1602; (1999) 47 IPR 47 cited

Pfizer Products Inc v Karam [2006] FCA 1663; (2006) 237 ALR 787 distinguished

Pioneer Computers Australia Pty Ltd v Pioneer KK [2009] FCA 135; (2009) 176 FCR 300 discussed

Pioneer Hi-Bred Corn Co v Hy-Line Chicks Pty Ltd [1979] RPC 410 cited

Podravka Prehrambena Industrija DD v Przedsiebiorstwo Produkcyjno Handlowe “Prymat” Ryszard Lechowski (2004) 64 IPR 414 cited

Polo Textile Industries Pty Ltd v Domestic Textile Corporation Pty Ltd [1993] FCA 203; (1993) 42 FCR 227 cited

Prefel SA v Merchant Corporation Pty Ltd (2001) 52 IPR 227 cited

Protiviti Inc v Probiti Pty Ltd [2005] FCA 1114 cited

Re Alex Pirie & Sons Ltd’s Application (1933) 50 RPC 147 cited

Re Carl Zeiss Pty Ltd’s Application [1969] HCA 17; (1969) 122 CLR 1 cited

Re John Fitton & Co Ltd’s Application (1949) 66 RPC 110 cited

Re Pianotist Co Ltd’s Application (1906) 23 RPC 774 cited

Re Rysta Ltd’s Application [1943] 1 All ER 400 cited

Registrar of Trade Marks v Woolworths Ltd [1999] FCAFC 1020; (1999) 93 FCR 365 discussed

Renaud Cointreau v Cordon Bleu International Ltd [2001] FCA 1170; (2001) 193 ALR 657 cited

Shell Company of Australia Ltd v Rohm and Haas Co [1948] HCA 27; (1949) 78 CLR 601 cited

Shell Co of Australia v Esso Standard Oil (Aust) Ltd [1963] HCA 66; (1963) 109 CLR 407 cited

South Cone Inc v Reg Barton Spencer [2007] ATMO 43 cited

Southern Cross Refrigerating Co v Toowoomba Foundry Pty Ltd (1954) 91 CLR 592 cited

Sporte Leisure Pty Ltd v Paul’s International Pty Ltd [2010] FCA 1162; (2010) 88 IPR 242 cited

Starr Partners Pty Ltd v Dev Prem Pty Ltd [2007] FCAFC 42; (2007) 71 IPR 459 cited

Toddler Kindy Gymbaroo Pty Ltd v Gymboree Pty Ltd [2000] FCA 618; (2000) 100 FCR 166 cited

Unichema Chemicals Ltd v Tiozide Co Inc [1993] ATMO 57; (1993) 26 IPR 624 cited

Unilever Australia Ltd v Karounos (2001) 113 FCR 322 cited

VB Distributors v Matsushita Electrical Industrial Co Ltd (1999) 53 IPR 466 distinguished

Vitasoy International Holdings Ltd v Green Spot Company Limited [2008] ATMO 45 cited

Wingate Marketing Pty Ltd and Another v Levi Strauss & Co and Another [1994] FCA 1001; (1994) 28 IPR 193 cited

Date of hearing:

5 September to 9 September 2011

Date of last submissions:

9 September 2011

Place:

Melbourne

Division:

GENERAL DIVISION

Category:

Catchwords

Number of paragraphs:

538

Counsel for the Applicants:

Mr D Shavin QC with Mr E Heerey

Solicitor for the Applicants:

Davies Collison Cave Law

Counsel for the Respondents:

Mr M Wyles SC with Mr S Rebikoff

Solicitor for the Respondents:

Polczynski Lawyers

IN THE FEDERAL COURT OF AUSTRALIA

VICTORIA DISTRICT REGISTRY

GENERAL DIVISION

VID 25 of 2011

BETWEEN:

TIVO INC.

First Applicant

TIVO BRANDS, LLC.

Second Applicant

VIVO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION PTY LTD (ACN 087 480 171)

Cross-Claimant

AND:

VIVO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION PTY LTD (ACN 087 480 171)

First Respondent

FABIO GRASSIA

Second Respondent

TIVO BRANDS, LLC.

Cross-Respondent

JUDGE:

DODDS-STREETON J

DATE:

19 MARCH 2012

PLACE:

MELBOURNE

REASONS FOR JUDGMENT

INTRODUCTION

The principal issue for determination in this proceeding is whether the respondents’ registered trade mark “VIVO” should be removed from the Register because it was, as at the priority date, deceptively similar to the applicants’ registered trade mark “TIVO” and, or alternatively, was likely to deceive or cause confusion by reason of the latter’s reputation in Australia.

The second applicant, TiVo Brands LLC, a company incorporated in Delaware on 22 March 2005, and ultimately owned and controlled by the first applicant, TiVo Inc, a publicly listed company which was incorporated in Delaware on 4 August 1997, is the registered owner of all the trade marks of the TiVo group of companies, including the Australian Registered Trade Mark No 813297 for the word “TIVO” (“the TiVo trade mark”). An application to register the TiVo trade mark in Australia was lodged on 10 November 1999. The TiVo trade mark was registered on 18 July 2000 for a period of ten years commencing from 10 November 1999 in respect of goods and services as follows:

(a) class 9: computer hardware and software including computer hardware, software and peripherals for personalised, interactive television programming; televisions; television peripheral remote controls; communication devices, including, transmitters, receivers and controls, and software for use therewith, and accompanying manuals sold as a unit;

(b) class 35: the promotion and sale of goods and services for others;

(c) class 38: subscription television services; transmission of cable television and interactive audio and video services; personalised and interactive television transmission services; and

(d) class 41: entertainment services, namely, personalised and interactive entertainment services; online guide to personalised and interactive television programming.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, I shall refer to the first applicant and second applicant collectively as “TiVo”.

On 18 February 2008, the second respondent, Fabio Grassia, on behalf of the first respondent, Vivo International Corporation Pty Ltd, a company he controlled (which was then known as Natcomp International Corporation Pty Ltd (“Natcomp”)), lodged an application to register the following device mark:

2012_25200.jpg

(“the Vivo trade mark”)

The application...

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